Advent 2020: 1 Thessalonians 2:1-12

During the season of Advent, I am translating from Greek to English the weekday epistle readings out of the Daily Lectionary of the Book of Common Prayer.

Tuesday, 1 December 2020 1 Thessalonians 2:1-12

Chapter Two

1. For you know yourselves, brothers and sisters, that our introduction to you was not in vain. 

2. And, as you know, we had the courage to speak of our God to you, the gospel of God in great opposition, after having suffered and been insulted beforehand in Philippi.

3. Our appeal to you was not from error, duplicity, or subterfuge. 

4. But, just as we have been approved by God to be entrusted with the gospel, so also we do not speak so as to please people but God, who is the one proving our hearts.

5. Just as you know, we came neither with flattering words nor with a pretext for greediness. God testifies to it. 

6. Nor glory seeking from people, not from you or from anyone,

7. although we had the power of authority as Christ’s apostles. Instead, we became as infants in your midst, like a nursing mother cherishes her own children. 

8. So, longing in this way for you, we determined to share not only the gospel of God with you, but our very souls. That is why you have become beloved. 

9. You should remember, brothers and sisters, our labor and effort, working night and day so as to not be a burden to anyone as we preached the gospel of God to you. 

10. You and God are witnesses to how devoutly, righteously, and blamelessly we behaved to those of you who are believers.

11. Indeed, you know, like a father to his own children were each one of you, 

12. Urging you, consoling you, affirming you to walk worthy of your God, who is calling you into his own kingdom and glory.


First, a textual note. For reasons I can’t understand, English renderings tend to put the opening phrase of verse 7 with verse 6, where it would read “Nor seeking glory from people, not from you or from anyone, although we had the power of authority as Christ’s apostles” as all verse 6. All my editions of the Greek New Testament list that phrase about authority being the first part of verse 7. It doesn’t change the meaning, but keeping it in the structure of the GNT allows for that great imagery of authority and power contrasted with being an infant.

Paul claims the gospel came from them not with error, duplicity, or subterfuge in verse 3. If we examine those we get three important claims for ministry. Paul says he was not in error. What he means is not that he doesn’t make errors, but the gospel he preached is not a mistaken one. Often it was claimed of Paul that he was preaching the wrong gospel or an altered version of it. Here he affirms he was not mistake about Christ, salvation, or the way of discipleship. he also claims that he did not have mixed motives. This is important, because a person could preach the right (no errors) but have duplicity. My reading of many churches, ministries, and pastors informs me some of them have sound doctrine but their motives are mixed in that they say it is all for the Lord but in reality they are promoting themselves. Subterfuge is a different kind of impurity Paul says is absent from his preaching. He never tried to trick the people. He was open, honest, and transparent. Any church or ministry that fudges numbers, lies about attendance, or plays politics to curry favor with a certain demographic is engaged in subterfuge.

I am fascinated by the use of infants as a metaphor. If you read it closely, he is not saying the Thessalonians became infants as he was the father. He is saying the opposite, he was like an infant, weak and lowly to them, rather than bossy and pushy. He waited for them to take the lead. I don’t know about you, but it is hard to do this. It is hard to wait, slow down, and allow others to lead. It must have been really hard for Paul. But that is what he did. No wonder he was able to write elsewhere, “I am crucified with Christ.” Crucifying our desires to control, frame, guide, and dominate is vital to spiritual leadership. And here, I would like to note, this is the opposite of what they teach in seminary and what the world defines as ‘real’ leadership. Paul says real leadership is celebrating how others grow into their role rather than grabbing all the headlines and sucking all the oxygen out of the room. I confess, I am a work-in-progress on this one.

There is a joke buried in verse 10. Paul outlines how devout, righteous, and blameless they were toward ‘those who are believers.’ Does this mean he was ungodly, wicked, and guilty to those who were not believers? I doubt it, but Paul’s choice of language is fascinating.

Questions For Application

  1. Paul says he was insulted in Philippi, but that didn’t stop him in Thessalonica. What insults and crude attacks have you worked through? How did it make you stronger?
  2. Paul lays it all out there that he wasn’t in it for the applause, the payday, or the recognition. What was his goal, and, more pointedly, what is your goal in the Christian life? At work? At home?
  3. Who do you share your very soul with? Why? Can a body of believers be called a church if the souls are not shared? Can a pastor or leader lead a church where the souls are not connected?
  4. What does a walk worthy of God look like in 2020 and in your world?

Greenbean’s Translation of Colossians

For the past two months I’ve been translating Colossians from the Greek New Testament in devotions. I took the extra time and polished it up for you. If you’re interested, then read away! If you are really interested, check our me and some friends on the Under The Water Tower podcast (click here) where we have been discussing Colossians.


Translated by Jamie Greening

Translators Notes

Many of these are unnecessarily long or run-on sentences. I have shortened many of them because English flows better with shorter sentences. However, that is nearly impossible for some as it changes the meaning. 

“Which” is a common way the verses begin, a feeling the writer is moving from one connected thought to another. I have kept some of this, but it makes for clunky reading and poor English. I have smoothed some of these out. Notable exceptions are found in 3:5-7, where the meaning is made clearer by the ‘which’. 

In this letter I have chosen to use the word “Messiah” instead of “Christ.” It is jarring to the American English eye to see it here because of the familiarity with ‘Christ Jesus’. This usage of the title Christ, a transliteration of the Greek ‘Christos’ which means ‘Messiah’, to me misses the historical and theological Hebrew meaning of Messiah. I choose to translate the translation here, but it must be noted one is not wrong to continue the usage “Christ”.  

The usage of the imperative flows throughout the letter. En toto, it doesn’t carry the feeling of being bossy or demanding, but rather urgency is implied. 

Content in [brackets] are textual variants which early witnesses do not agree upon as original to the letter.

Asterisks * are used to denote specific comment on particular verses or words at the conclusion of each chapter. 

Remember, errare humanum est – I do make mistakes. If you see an error, please notify the editor at once. 

Chapter One

1. Paul, an apostle of Messiah Jesus by the will of God, and brother Timothy,

2. to the saints, the faithful brothers and sisters in Messiah, in Colossae, grace and peace to you from God our father.

3. When we pray, we always give thanks to God the Father of our Lord Jesus Messiah for you,

4. since hearing about your faith in Messiah Jesus and the love you have for all the saints

5. because you heard in the word of truth, the gospel, about the hope reserved for you in heaven beforehand.

6. It has come to you in the same way it has the whole world, bearing fruit and growing, as it has in you from the day you heard and came to know the truth of the grace of God.

7. You learned it from our fellow bondservant, the beloved Epaphras. He is a faithful minister of Messiah on your behalf.  

8. He showed us your love in the spirit.

9. Because of this, we have not stopped praying, and asking, that you might be filled in the knowledge of his will and all wisdom and spiritual insight,

10. so as to walk worthy of the Lord, desiring to please him in all things, growing and bearing fruit in all good work in the knowledge of God. 

11. Be strengthened in every power according to his mighty glory, persevere in all things with patience and joy.

12. Giving thanks to the Father, who made you fit to take part in the inheritance of the saints in light. 

13. He delivered us from the domain of darkness and transformed us into the kingdom of his beloved son.

14. In whom we have liberation, the forgiveness of sins. 

15. He is the image of the unseen God, the firstborn of all creation.

16. Because all things – in the heavens, upon the earth, the seen, the unseen, thrones, dominions, rulers, authorities – were created in him. It has all been created by him and in him. 

17. What’s more, he himself is before all things. All things have held together because of him.  

18. He, who is the source, the firstborn of the dead, who became preeminent in everything, he himself is the head of the body of the church. **

19. Because it seems pleasing for all the fullness to abide in him***

20. and to reconcile all things through him who [by himself] made peace by the blood of the cross for those upon the earth and those in the heavens. 

21. Even you, who once were alienated, being enemies of the mind in your works of evil,

22. but now he reconciled you in the body of his flesh, by his death, to present you holy, unblemished, and irreproachable before him. 

23. That is, if you indeed remain in the faith, being grounded and stable, immovable from the hope of the gospel you heard, the one presented in all creation under heaven, of which I, Paul, became a minister.

24. I rejoice in suffering for you, finishing the remaining affliction of the Messiah in my flesh on behalf of his body – the church. 

25. I became a minister according to the design of God, given to me to fulfill the word of God among you.****

26. The mystery has been kept hidden through the ages and from the previous generations – but now it has been revealed to his saints. 

27. To whom he desired to make known the rich glory of this mystery among the nations, which is Messiah in you, the hope of glory. 

28. This is what we preached, admonishing and teaching everyone in all wisdom, so we might stand alongside everyone completely in Messiah.

29. I labor at this, striving with all the energy he is energizing within me. 

*I have chosen to use the term ‘minister’ here for ‘diakonos’ although ‘servant’ would serve, linguistically, just as fine. However, Paul uses another word-set for servant, ‘doulos’ in the exact same verse, so I think he is intentionally using the word ‘diakonos’ in an official way. To this point, I use it as minister throughout. 

**It strikes me there are twin dangers here. We could over philosophize it and thus strip these lines of the clear ecclesiastical power or we can underwhelm it with only an emphasis upon church language. Maybe here ‘ekklesia’ doesn’t mean church – perhaps it means congregations of created things as in verse sixteen.

***There is no ‘of God’ in the text. Many English renderings include “of God” but this is a gloss. 

****Design = ‘oikonomia’ – a word that is connected to the English word economy, and usually means household or might mean work. In this context, no one word does justice as the meaning seems to be something akin to ‘according to the efficient worldwide cosmic masterplan God is working with’. In my mind I wonder if Paul doesn’t have something like an architect’s schematics in mind. 

Chapter Two

1. I want you to know that I have a great struggle for you, the people in Laodicea, and all those who have never seen my face.

2. It is that our heart might be encouraged, united in love with abundant conviction of, understanding of, in the knowledge of, the mystery of, God in Messiah. 

3. In whom, all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge are hidden away. 

4. I tell you this so no one might deceive you with swaying words.

5. Even though I am absent in the flesh, I am with you in spirit, where I rejoice seeing your discipline and steadfastness of faith in Messiah. 

6. Therefore, as you received Jesus Messiah, the Lord, you must walk in him.

7. And now, after having been rooted and built in him, having been established in the faith just as you were together in abundant thanksgiving,

8. see to it you will not be carried off by the philosophy and hollow deceit of human tradition or the elements of the world rather than by Messiah,

9. because all the embodied fullness of the Godhead dwells in him. 

10. You have been filled by him who is the head of all rulers and authorities. 

11. In whom, you were circumcised without human hands by leaving behind the body of flesh with the circumcision of Messiah

12. when you were buried together with him in baptism.  You, who will be raised up by faith in the power of God, who raised him from the dead. *

13. And you, being dead in your trespasses and the uncircumsion of your flesh, were made alive with him who forgave you all those trespasses 

14. by erasing the handwritten itemized indictment against us, removing it once for all from our midst. He nailed it to the cross. **

15. He himself disarmed the rulers and authorities. He led them around, exposing them publicly. 

16. So do not let anyone judge you on issues of eating and drinking, festivals, new moons, or sabbaths. 

17. These things are but a shadow of what is to come for the body of Messiah. 

18. Do not let anyone disqualify you by making you be initiated into service and devotion to angels, having been made arrogant by the vanity of a fleshly mind ***

19.  by not holding onto the head, from which the whole body is nourished and unified with ligaments and sinew. Its growth is from the Lord.

20. If you died to the elements of this world with Messiah, why then do you live according to the world’s dictates?

21. “Do not hold. Do not taste. Do not touch.”**** 

22. Everything rots; it expires along with the commands and teachings of human beings.

23. These things have wisdom – wisdom in self-esteem, self-service, and self-abuse. None of it has any value in actually caring for physical needs. *****

*note “power” here is the same word group as 1:29 and is a cognate of ‘energy’. It is not power in the sense of authority or fiat, but rather the idea of power as something energizing, making active, propelling. 

** “handwritten” is like the word ‘decree’. It has a legal implication like directive or indictment. The odd part is the emphasis upon ‘hand’ in Paul’s use of words. The best feeling is something like “the accumulation of accusations which we have written ourselves with our own hand by our own actions over time and have turned into a list to be used against us.”

*** The words ‘service’ and ‘devotion’ are slippery here. These are fine words when applied to faith in Messiah, but the context here betrays that Messiah is not the focus. Instead, Paul is using these terms to describe or refer to an initiation ritual or process into a kind of mystery religion where the ‘secret’ is conveyed. 

****This seems to me as a quotation of sorts. Paul is referencing some kind of known dictum that reflects some system of behavior being imposed upon the Colossian Christ-followers. 

***** I have taken Paul’s use of ‘self’ in the compound word ‘self-worship’ and applied it to the following words “service” and “abuse” because that is what I feel he is emphasizing. He is contrasting the focus on Messiah as the center, the head, with putting ourselves and our own twisted kind of ‘wisdom’ at the center which is a service to self, idealization of self, and ultimately a misappropriation and misuse of the physical body God gave to each of us. 

Chapter Three

1. If you, therefore, have been raised up with Messiah, then you must seek things above where Messiah will be sitting at the right hand of God.

2. You must* think about things above and not things upon the earth. 

3. You died. Your life has been hidden in God with Messiah. 

4. Whenever the Messiah might be revealed in your life, then you will be revealed with him in glory. 

5. Therefore put to death those parts of you formed on the earth: fornication, uncleanliness, sensual passions, evil desires, and greediness, which is idolatry, 

6. which is why the wrath of God comes [upon disobedient children],  

7. which you yourselves walked in back when you lived for these things. 

8. But now you must get rid of these kinds of things – wrath, rage, hateful feelings, blasphemy, and foul language out of your mouth. 

9. Do not lie to one another. You have shed the old person along with his or her behavior.

10. Rather, put on the new person, the one being renewed in knowledge, in the image of the one who created you. 

11. Where there is no Greek or Jew, circumcised or uncircumcised, illiterate heathen or barbarian Scythian, slave or free. Instead, all are in Messiah and Messiah is in all. 

12. As the chosen, holy, and beloved people of God, therefore, display** gut feelings of compassion, kindness, humility, gentleness, and longsuffering patience as if they were clothes wrapped around your body. 

13. Tolerate one another and freely give*** of yourselves to anyone who might have a complaint. 

14. Over all these, like a coat, there is the bond of love that completes everything.   

15. The Messiah’s peace must preside in your hearts, making you thankful you were called into one body.

16. The word of Messiah must dwell abundantly among you, as you teach and warn one another with all wisdom. Sing psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs of grace to God in your hearts. 

17. Whatever you do, whether in word or in deed, you should do it all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks through him to God the Father.

18. Wives must be submissive to husbands as is proper in the Lord.

19. Husbands must love wives and not be mean to them.

20. Children must obey parents in everything, for this is pleasing to the Lord.

21. Parents**** must not provoke their children or else it might break their spirit.  

22. Slaves must obey human masters not only when watched, like a do-gooder, but in a sincerity of heart, fearing the Lord.

23. In whatever you do, you must work from the center of your being ***** as if for the Lord and not for people. 

24. You must serve as unto the Lord Messiah knowing that you will receive from the Lord the reward of the inheritance.

25. The one who does wrong will get back the wrong he or she did. There is no favoritism. 

* the imperative is found throughout this chapter. There are various ways to render that, but for the most part I have stuck to the word ‘must’ (see v. 18ff). 

** “wear like clothes . . . wrapped around your body” is “put on” – a common Pauline phrase. So common, in fact, the power of the metaphor is often lost. In verse 14 I have inserted “like a coat” to fulfill the phrase and the image Paul is describing – love as an outer garment that pulls everything together. 

***I have translated the knotty little word as ‘freely give’ whereas many other English renderings use the more generic term ‘forgive’. It can mean forgive, but in this context ‘freely give’ makes more sense and, if Paul had intended the technical word forgive, there are better words. I think he has something more nuanced in mind. 

**** “Parents” here is ‘fathers’, but as is the case with “sons” and “brothers”, the masculine plural often denotes groups and my reading of the text is Paul means both mothers and fathers, therefore, “parents”. 

***** Word here is ‘psyche’ and is often translated as ‘whole heart.’ It is a complicated Greek word, which is also complicated in English. Without going into the metaphysics of human composition here it is best to emphasize Paul is speaking about intention and motive that leads to a thoroughness and integrity in work. 

Chapter Four

1. Masters must give justice and equity to slaves because you know you have a master in heaven. 

2. You must remain constant in prayer, being alert to it with thanksgiving. 

3. At the same time, keep praying for us, that God might open a door for us to speak the word about the mystery of Messiah, the one to whom I am bound.

4. So that when it is necessary to speak, I might make it clear.

5. You must walk in wisdom as it pertains to outsiders. Exploit the time. 

6. The things you say should always be pleasant, as if something seasoned with salt. It is vital each one of you know how to answer someone. 

7. Tychicus, the beloved brother, truthful minister, and fellow servant in the Lord will inform you how things are going for me. 

8. This is why I sent him to you, so that you might know everything about us, and he might encourage your hearts,

9. Along with the faithful and dearly loved brother, Onesimus, who is one of you, they will make known to you everything about here.

10. Aristarchus, my fellow prisoner, greets you as does Mark, the relative of Barnabas. You received instructions about how if he comes to you, you must welcome him.

11. And so does Jesus – who is called Justus – he is one of those from the circumcision party. These people are the only ones working with me in the kingdom of God. They became a comfort to me. *

12. The servant of Messiah, Epaphras, who is one of you, greets you. He always struggles for you in his prayers that you might stand complete and assured in the total will of God. 

13. I bear witness for him, how he worked very hard on your behalf and for Laodicea and Hierapolis.

14. The dear doctor, Luke, greets you as does Demas. 

15. Greet the brothers and sisters in Laodicea as well as Nympha, and the church in her house.

16. When this letter is read among you, make sure it can be read to the Laodicean church and that the Laodicean one could be read to you.

17. And you must say to Archippus, “see to it that you complete the ministry you received from the Lord.”  

18. This greeting is in my own hand, Paul. Remember my imprisonment. Grace be with you.

*I wrestled with this verse a great deal. I never satisfied in my own mind whether Paul was saying “Justus, Aristarchus, and Mark are the only one from the circumcision party who was a comfort to me” or if he is saying “Justus, who is from the circumcision party, along with Aristarchus and Mark, are the only ones who were a comfort to me.” Either take is defensible, in my view.  

The Gospel of Mark: A Translation



I spent the winter and spring translating the Gospel of Mark from New Testament Greek to English.  Here are a few sample lines from the first six verses of Chapter 3.

  1. He went up again into the synagogue, where there was a man with a shriveled hand.
  2. They watched him closely in the synagogue, to see whether he would heal him, so that they might denounce him.
  3. He says to the man with the shriveled hand, “Stand in the middle.”
  4. He says to them, “Is it legal to do good or to do bad on the Sabbath? To save a soul or to kill it?” They kept silent.
  5. He looked around with anger, having been saddened by their hard hearts. He says to the man, “Stick out the hand,” and he stuck it out. His hand had been restored again.
  6. The Pharisees and Herodians left immediately. They conspired about how they might destroy him.


If you’re interested, CLICK RIGHT HERE to download the whole document.



In the words of Jim Morrison, ‘This is the end.’  Not the end of everything, mind you.  Just the end of my translation of Romans.  It took me a little longer than I thought it would, because, you know, life.  Nevertheless, I have enjoyed each step, and feel that I know the book of Romans far better than I previously did, and that I know Paul better.  My continual prayer, however, whenever I study the scriptures is to learn more about the Lord, his ways, and how I can follow him as I interact with the world around me.  Study must be devotional or it is only a mind game.


The beginning “greet” in verse 5 is not in the actual text, but is instead borrowed. That fragment should rightly go with the previous verse.  I generally view each new “greet” as a new sentence.

In verse 10, “those from Aristobolus’ household” likely means those who are slaves belonging to a man named Aristobolus, and not a reference to his family.

Paul wants to say “Hi,” to Rufus’ mother in verse 13, but it is difficult to know what he means by “and me” at the end. He probably means “Greet Rufus’ mother, because she has been a mother to me as well,” but the language could also be “Greet Rufus’ mother, and my mother too” meaning that his mother was with Rufus’ mother. I left it literal, attempting to maintain the ambiguity.

The end of this chapter is a textual mess.  There is no verse 24, and there is doubt that verses 25-27 are genuinely Pauline.  I am not a textual critic, but a simple reading does indeed indicate that the end of verse 20 is the logical conclusion for his greetings to Rome, and then a perfunctory return greeting from those who are with him, followed by the brief benediction at the end of verse 20 makes sense.  The last line, one would assume, should be the amanuensis named Tertius and a reference to his host Gaius and friend Quartus.  It makes little sense to put the glorious doxology (and it is indeed glorious, verse 25 alone is a real gem) after the signature line, thus I lean toward thinking that 25-27 are a later addition and not the hand of Paul.


Chapter 16 might be my favorite chapter in Romans because it is so personal.  For the love of all that is good and decent, do not just skip over the names here, because they matter.  Here are three highlights.

First, Phoebe is probably the person delivering the letter, and charged with the primary goal of fundraising for the upcoming trip to Spain.  Paul calls her a deacon, which may well mean generic “servant” or “minister” because offices were very fluid and not codified in the early church.  However, the tendency to translate the word “servant” here but “deacon” whenever it applies to a man is sexist and reflects poor hermeneutics.  In context, it is clear that she was a leader of some sort from her home church and Paul had sent her as a leader with leadership authority.  Indeed, note the first two people he greets are both women.

Second, Paul seems to know a lot of people in Rome, especially considering he’d never been there.  This reflects the transient nature of the first century, but also the missionary strategy of early church leaders–get into the cities–the major cities, and work from there as a base of operations.  My instinct tells me that it was the understood goal of all in Paul’s circle of co-workers that getting to Rome, the seat of empire, culture, economics, and religion was a high priority.

Third, I am obsessed with the mention of Rufus (v. 13).  Let me draw it out simply.  Paul calls him “Chosen” which means something specific, something unique to him.  What can that be.  Here is my hypothesis:  Paul’s ministry is closely linked with Luke, who wrote his own gospel and the book of Acts, and John Mark, who may have been the author of the Gospel of Mark.  Both Luke and Mark tell of the man Simon of Cyrene who carried the cross of Jesus at the crucifixion.  Mark tells us that Simon had two sons named Alexander and Rufus.  Paul’s shout out to Rufus’ mother, who had nourished him as well, could indicate that this family had been integral in Paul’s early spiritual formation in the faith.  Of course, I can’t prove any of this but it does fascinate me.

Chapter Sixteen
1. And I introduce to you our sister Phoebe. She is a deacon of the church in Cenchrea,
2. so welcome her in the Lord, in a way worthy of the saints. Help her with whatever issue might come up, for she is a protector of many, and was for me.
3. Greet Prisca and Aquila, my co-workers in Messiah Jesus,
4. for they risked their own necks for my life, and not for me only do I give thanks, but all the churches of the gentiles.
5. Greet their home church. Greet Epaenetus my beloved, who is first-fruit of Asia in Messiah.
6. Greet Mary, who worked hard among you.
7. Greet my relatives and fellow prisoners Andronicus and Junia. They are famous among the apostles and were in Messiah before me.
8. Greet Ampliatus, my beloved in the Lord.
9. Greet Urbanus, our co-worker in Messiah and my beloved Stachys.
10. Greet Apelles, who is tried and true in Messiah. Greet those from Aristobolus’ household.
11. Greet Herodion, my relative. Greet the ones from Narcissus who are in the Lord.
12. Greet Tryphaena and Tryphosa who work in the Lord. Greek Persis, the beloved, who works so much in the Lord.
13. Greet Rufus, the one chosen in the Lord, and his mother and mine.
14. Greet Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermes, Patrobas, Hermas, and the brothers and sisters with them.
15. Greet Philologus, Julia, Nereus, and his sister, Olympus, and all the saints with them.
16. Greet one another with a holy kiss. All the churches in Messiah greet you.
17. Yet I encourage you, brothers and sisters, to watch for those who bring dissension and difficulties against the teaching you have learned; stay clear of them.
18. For such people are not serving our Lord Messiah, but their own belly, and by pretty words and flattering speech they deceive the heart of the simple.
19. For your obedience in all things reached us, therefore I rejoice over you. I wish you to be wise in good things, but innocent in the bad.
20. The God of peace will crush Satan under your feet quickly. The grace of our Lord Jesus be with you.
21. My co-worker Timothy, and my relatives Lucius, Jason, and Sosipater greet you.
22. I, Tertius, who wrote this letter, greet you in the Lord.
23. My host Gaius greets you, as does the whole church. Erastus the city steward and brother Quartus greet you.
24. —
25. To the one being able to strengthen you by my gospel and the preaching about Messiah Jesus, according to the revelation of the eternal mysteries preserved in the silence of time,
26. but having been revealed now in the prophetic scriptures by the command of the eternal God, to make known the obedience of faith to all people,
27. to God who alone is wise, through Jesus the Messiah, to whom is glory in eternity. Amen.